Bruxism is the medical term used to describe teeth grinding and clenching. Bruxism can occur during the day or night, and can have various effects on oral and general health. Here are some of the most common effects of bruxism:


(a)Severe receding gums with wearing and chipping of all anterior and posterior teeth.


2.Tooth Damage: Constant clenching or grinding of teeth can cause significant wear and tear on the tooth enamel. Over time, teeth can become severely worn, chipped or fractured, leading to dental decay and other dental problems.

Bruxism1 Bruxism2

(b) & (c). Fractured molars due to Bruxism

2. Jaw Pain and Headaches: The repetitive movement of the jaw while grinding or clenching
the teeth can cause soreness, tension, and pain in the jaw muscles. Additionally, individuals
with bruxism may develop headaches, which can be caused by the jaw pain or related
tension in the head and neck muscles.

3. TMJ Disorders: Bruxism can cause temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders that can cause pain in the jaw joint and associated muscles, leading to stiffness and limited jaw movement. The grinding and clenching of teeth can also result in popping or clicking sounds as the jaw moves.

4. Sleep Disturbances: Bruxism can disrupt sleep patterns and lead to tiredness and lack of
sleep. Individuals who grind or clench their teeth at night may become restless or have

5. Exacerbated Dental Work: Dental work such as fillings, crowns, and bridges may become
damaged or worn down more quickly in individuals with bruxism. Chronic teeth grinding and
jaw clenching can result in damage to dental work that may require replacement or repair.

6. Gum Recession: Bruxism forces can cause the gums to become sore and recede. Receded
gums can expose the root of the tooth, leading to sensitivity and increasing the risk of tooth
decay and loss.

The treatments for bruxism Include:

1. Stress management and relaxation techniques such as yoga, meditation, or counselling
2. Dental treatments such as bite splints or mouth guards to protect teeth
3. Orthodontic treatments to correct malocclusion
4. Muscle relaxants prescribed by a doctor
5. Botox injections to relax jaw muscles
6. Lifestyle changes such as avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco

If you suspect that you may have bruxism, it is important to seek dental evaluation and treatment to prevent further damage and alleviate symptoms. Your dentist may recommend a custom fit mouthguard or splint to be worn during sleep to prevent further grinding and clenching of your teeth. Additionally, stress-reducing techniques and lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise and stress management may help reduce the risk of bruxism.

Contact Sonria Dental Clinic, if you have any questions about Bruxism, our orthodontist, Ines Fruhbeck will only be too please to discuss the matter with you.

You can find us at 25 Devonshire Place, W1G 6JD.
Tel: 02072241402

wisdom teeth

Wisdom teeth are the third set of molars that typically emerge in the late teens or early twenties. While some people may not experience any problems with their wisdom teeth, others may suffer from a range of complications. These complications can include pain, infection, tooth decay, and even damage to surrounding teeth and gums.


Pericoronitis on Lower right wisdom tooth

One of the most common complications associated with wisdom teeth is impaction. This occurs when the tooth does not fully emerge from the gum line, or emerges at an angle, causing it to press against neighbouring teeth. Impacted wisdom teeth can cause pain, swelling, and infection, and may require extraction.

Another complication that can arise from wisdom teeth is tooth decay. Wisdom teeth are located at the back of the mouth, which can make them difficult to reach and clean properly. This can lead to the accumulation of food particles and bacteria, which can cause cavities and decay.

Dental decay

Dental decay on Lower left seven and Wisdom tooth

Dental decay on Lower left seven and Wisdom tooth

In some cases, wisdom teeth can also cause damage to adjacent teeth and gums. When wisdom teeth emerge at an angle, they can push against neighbouring teeth, causing them to shift or become misaligned. This can also cause damage to the surrounding gums, leading to inflammation and infection.

In rare cases, wisdom teeth can also cause cysts or tumours to develop in the jawbone. These growths can be painful and may require surgery to remove.

Cyst and Infection On A Wisdom Tooth

For these reasons, many dentists recommend having wisdom teeth removed as a preventive measure. This is often done in the late teens or early twenties, before the wisdom teeth have fully emerged and had a chance to cause complications.


Cyst and infection on a Wisdom tooth

Wisdom tooth extraction is typically a minor surgical procedure that can be performed under local anaesthesia or IV sedation. The dentist or oral surgeon will make an incision in the gum line to access the tooth, and may need to remove some bone to fully extract it. After the tooth is removed, the area will be cleaned and stitched closed.

Impacted Wisdom Tooth

Recovery from wisdom tooth extraction typically takes a few days to a week. Patients may experience some swelling, discomfort, and bleeding, but these symptoms can be managed with pain medication and rest. It is also important to avoid strenuous activity and stick to a soft-food diet during the recovery period.

Impacted Wisdom tooth

Impacted Wisdom tooth

In conclusion, wisdom teeth can cause a range of complications, including impaction, tooth decay, and damage to adjacent teeth and gums. While some people may not experience any problems with their wisdom teeth, others may need to have them removed as a preventive measure. If you are experiencing pain or discomfort related to your wisdom teeth, it is important to consult with your dentist or oral surgeon to determine the best course of treatment.

If you have any questions about your wisdom teeth, please contact Sonria Dental Clinic. Our specialist Dr Ciro Gilvetti will be only too please to assist.

Oral Cancer

Many people do not know that cancer can arise form the mouth. Oral cancer is among the 10 most common cancers worldwide and its incidence is on the rise. There is 32% increase of incidence over the last 10 years. There are approximately 5000 new cases per year in UK.

This type of cancer still has high mortality and high morbidity. Generally speaking the earlier the cancer is diagnosis the better is the prognosis. Public awareness of oral cancer is low, patients of- ten delay to seek professional advice. We should minimise time from onset of signs or symptoms to diagnosis.

Early signs or symptoms of oral cancer are:

– ulcers or sores of the oral mucosa persisting for more than 3 weeks

– lumps and bumps in the oral cavity or on the neck persisting more than 3 weeks – white or red patches of the oral mucosa

In case you have noticed any of the above please do not hesitate to seek professional help. Dental practices or general medical practitioner are a good starting point.

Oral health care professional including dentists, hygienists and therapists are trained to recognised suspicious lesions or signs and act accordingly.

Oral cancer is multifactorial disease with some well established risk factors. The key messages for primary prevention of oral cancer are:

– Quit smoking or the use of any form of tobacco

– Keep within recommended guideline for alcohol consumption – Eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables

Dental practices provide a great opportunity to initiate discussions and advice about smoking ces- sation, reduced alcohol consumption and the benefits of good nutrition. During your routine oral examination your mouth will thoroughly assessed and receive a cancer screening.

Ciro Gilvetti

Dr Ciro Gilvetti DDS, MFDS, AFHEA, MClin OS, Dip OM

Specialist Oral Surgeon

Associate Specialist

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Queen Victoria Hospital

Associate Clinical Lecturer

University Collage London


dental implants London

Missing or damaged teeth can really knock your confidence and make you feel self-conscious of smiling and enjoying yourself in social situations. Not only is your appearance affected but also your state of mind and self-identity. Missing and damaged teeth can also cause other problems related to chewing, speech and the way you enjoy a meal. With dental implants, you can replace your missing or damaged teeth for a natural and healthy looking smile. Here at Sonria Dental Clinic London, we are proud to provide you with the highest standard of dental implants to match your mouth perfectly. 

Dental implants are fine titanium rods or frames that are surgically attached into the jawbone of your mouth. Once in place, replacement artificial teeth are securely mounted on to them in a shade which matches your existing teeth. Dental implants are the perfect solution for missing teeth and those that find dentures or brides difficult and uncomfortable. There are many benefits to consider when deciding if dental implants are right for you. 

They are as strong and sturdy as your natural teeth

Dental implants are firmly attached to your jawbone allowing the bone around them to harden. This keeps the implants securely in place so that the artificial teeth are as strong as your natural teeth. Dental implants can withstand the biting and chewing of hard foods such as meat, apples and nuts etc. You will be able to eat, talk and smile in comfort without the worry of them becoming lose like dentures.   

They look natural

Dental implants look completely natural and nobody will be able to tell that they are artificial. Your dental implants will be precisely shade-matched with your existing teeth so that there are no inconsistencies or noticeable differences between your natural teeth and dental implants. This is very important for those that are self-conscious and worried that people may notice differences in their teeth. With dental implants, you can boost your self-esteem and smile, eat and talk without worrying about the appearance of your teeth. 

They won’t damage your natural teeth

One of the main concerns patients have about dental implants is that they may damage your natural teeth. Compared to dental bridges, dental implants will not weaken or damage your surrounding teeth as they do not require any alteration or support from your natural teeth.

They are long-lasting

Dental implants can last many years, possibly a lifetime with the right care and maintenance. Regular brushing, flossing, dental appointments and overall good oral hygiene will ensure that your dental implants will look and function brilliantly for many years to come. 


Contrary to popular belief, dental implants are more affordable than most people think. It is true that they are more expensive than other dental treatments such as bridges but the purpose and longevity of dental implants will save you a lot of money in the long-run. Other dental treatments may require several replacements and adjustments over the years which can be quite costly. Dental implants are worth investing in as they can last you many years and work out cheaper in the long-run. 

If you would like to know more about dental implants or any of our other treatments which may help you, please do not hesitate to contact us here at Sonria Dental Clinic London. We will be happy to answer any questions you may have and give you expert advice on which treatment is best for you. We look forward to hearing from you. 

wedding smile makeovers

How many times will your photographer, friends, and family be telling you to “Smile!” at you and your partner on your wedding day? Just like having the perfect dress, your smile is one thing that people will always remember on their Big Day. Therefore, it is only natural to want to ensure that those pearly whites look their absolute best.

Chipped, cracked, discoloured, and stained teeth are some of the most common issues we deal with prior to a bride’s wedding. Thankfully, there are plenty of things you can do throughout your engagement to ensure that near-perfect smile is possible.

1. Go for a Consultation

Depending on what you want to do to your teeth, it’s important to get the process started early, so you’re not scrambling right before the wedding. A consultation with us will not only consist of a thorough check-up, but it will include a thorough assessment of your overall oral health. You will be advised of any treatment you may need, not only to make your smile more aesthetically pleasing, but to improve and maintain your oral health.

A popular treatment is Orthodontics for straightening and realigning your teeth. Such treatment can take up to two years. However, new cosmetic solutions, such as Six Month Smiles, can significantly reduce this time by simply straightening those teeth that are visible.

Touch base with one of our cosmetic dentists early on and see what your options are.

2. Keep up your Oral Hygiene

As you embark on a teeth whitening treatment, it’s a good idea to first have your teeth professionally cleaned, that way surface stains can be removed first. This will also help you see what, exactly, you need to do professionally and what you can take care of at home.

3. Start whitening your teeth

Don’t leave whitening until the last minute! The colour of your teeth, in our opinion, is the most important thing that one can concentrate on, and we think it’s extremely important to prepare in advance.

Although you can get immediate results with an in-surgery whitening session, you may want to top-up your results further at home white the ‘home whitening kit’, depending on your desired results. It’s also important not to try to cram it in as, for example, accidental exposure to the gum tissue can cause gingival irritation.

4. Maintain your oral health and habits at home

At Sonria, we love educating our patients about oral health and how they can ensure they keep up the professional clean they leave the practice with. There’s a lot to think about in the months leading up to your wedding, but treating your teeth the right way should be a priority.

5. Chew more sugar-free gum

Chewing sugar-free gum appears to have many benefits.

Firstly, chewing sugar-free gum increases saliva production, which helps keep teeth cleaner and brighter without adding tons of effort to your normal routine. It has also been shown that the increase of the flow of saliva can strengthen the teeth, thereby reducing tooth decay. Clinical studies have shown that chewing sugarless gum for 20 minutes following meals can help prevent tooth decay. If you don’t believe us, check out the American Dental Association for more information!

Secondly, sugar free gum can reduce tooth sensitivity caused by in-office teeth whitening. Researchers pinpointed the increase in saliva flow from the act of chewing as a likely cause of this benefit. You can read more about this study here.

6. Steer clear of coffee, tea, red wine and other dark and staining drinks

If you absolutely must drink stain-creating substances like berry smoothies, cola, and cranberry juice, do it through a straw to limit direct contact with your teeth. Further to this, if you MUST drink or eat them, don’t swish! Please swish your mouth with water after. More information on staining of teeth and staining can be found on our article.

Happy man eating a salad

Our body is a complex machine. The foods we choose and how often we eat them can affect our general health and the health of our teeth and gums, too. If we consume too many sugar-filled sodas, sweetened fruit drinks or non-nutritious snacks, we could be at risk for tooth decay and gum disease. Tooth decay is the single most common chronic childhood disease, but the good news is that it is entirely preventable.

Why is a healthy diet important for my oral health?

So, does my Diet affect my Oral Health? Every time you eat or drink anything sugary, your teeth are under acid attack for up to one hour. This is because the sugar will react with the bacteria in the plaque (the sticky coating on your teeth) and produce harmful acids. So it is important to have sugary foods or drinks just at mealtimes, limiting the amount of time your mouth is at risk.

Acidic foods and drinks can be just as harmful. The acid ‘erodes’ or dissolves the enamel, exposing the dentine underneath. This can make your teeth sensitive and unsightly.

Acidic food and drinks can cause erosion – the gradual dissolving of the tooth enamel. The lower the pH number, the more acidic the product. Anything with a pH value lower than 5.5 may cause erosion. ‘Alkalis’ have a high pH number and cancel out the acid effects of sugars. pH 7 is the middle figure between acid and alkali.

Foods that contain sugars and acids of any kind can contribute to tooth decay. To control the amount of sugar we eat, we should read the nutrition facts and ingredient labels on foods and beverages and choose options that are lowest in sugar. Common sources of sugar in the diet include soft drinks, candy, cookies and pastries. The physician or a registered dietician can also provide suggestions for eating a nutritious diet. If your diet lacks certain nutrients, it may be more difficult for tissues in your mouth to resist infection. This may contribute to gum disease. Severe gum disease is a major cause of tooth loss in adults. Many researchers believe that the disease progresses faster and is potentially more severe in people with poor nutrition.

Therefore, a diet that is rich in vitamins, minerals and fresh fruit and vegetables can help to prevent gum disease. Gum disease can lead to tooth loss and cause bad breath.

Foods to Avoid

Oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes and similarly common fruit items are as acidic as they are healthy, which is why it’s important to consume them with water to ensure they don’t harm the enamel of your teeth. However, these products aren’t the only foods out there known for their low pH level. Others include:

  • Pickles pH 3.5
  • Cranberry juice ph2.5
  • Tomato products (pasta sauce, ketchup, salsa, hot sauce) 6ph
  • Coffee pH 5
  • Wine 3.5
  • Cheddar cheese pH 5.9
  • Lager pH 4.4
  • Orange juice pH 3.8
  • Grapefruit pH 3.3
  • Cola pH 2.5
  • Red wine pH 2.5
  • Vinegar pH 2.0

Why do our teeth hurt?

When the acids in the foods you eat and drink cause tooth enamel to wear away, teeth can become discoloured as a result. And when tooth enamel weakens in this way, demineralization has started to occur – leaving your teeth’s dentin exposed and prone to sensitivity. Brushing after a meal is generally a good idea, but avoid doing so right after consuming acidic foods. Acid softens your enamel, and brushing too soon will only speed up tooth wear before the enamel has time to settle again. Unfortunately, demineralization can lead to tooth decay.

How to Lessen Dental Erosion

Try eating any acidic foods alongside foods that have a higher pH level, and are therefore low in acidity. Some of these foods include nuts, cheese, oatmeal, mangos, melons, bananas, apples, eggs, vegetables, brown rice and whole grains. Fish and lean meats also have low levels of acid. These foods may actually help protect your tooth enamel, giving you a nice double benefit. They do this by neutralizing acids in otherwise acidic saliva, and by providing the calcium and phosphorus needed to put minerals back in the teeth.

Dental erosion

Eat healthy snacks – Does my Diet affect my Oral Health?

It is better for your teeth and general health if you eat 3 meals a day instead of having 7 to 10 snacks so “does my Diet affect my Oral Health” does ring true?. If you do need to snack between meals, choose foods that do not contain sugar. Fruit does contain acids, which can erode your teeth. However, this is only damaging to your teeth if you eat an unusually large amount. Try not to have a lot of dried fruit as it is high in sugar and can stick to your teeth.

If you do eat fruit as a snack, try to eat something alkaline such as cheese afterwards. Savoury snacks are better, such as:

  • Cheese
  • Raw vegetables
  • Nuts

Can I eat sweets?

The main point to remember is that it is not the amount of sugar you eat or drink, but how often you do it. Sweet foods are allowed, but it is important just to have them at mealtimes.

To help reduce tooth decay, cut down on how often you have sugary foods and drinks and try to have sugar-free varieties. Confectionery and chewing gum containing the artificial sweetener Xylitol may help to reduce tooth decay.

Sugary foods can also cause a range of health problems including heart disease and being overweight.

Should I brush my teeth after every meal?

It is important that you brush last thing at night and at least one other time during the day, with a toothpaste containing fluoride.

Eating and drinking foods containing sugar and acids naturally weakens the enamel on your teeth. Brushing straight afterwards can cause tiny particles of enamel to be brushed away. It is best not to brush your teeth until at least one hour after eating.

It is especially important to brush before bed. This is because the flow of saliva, which is the mouth’s own cleaning system, slows down during the night and this leaves the mouth more at risk from decay.

Does chewing gum help?

Chewing gum makes your mouth produce more saliva, which helps to cancel out the acid in your mouth after eating or drinking. It has been proven that using sugar-free chewing gum after meals can prevent tooth decay. However, it is important to use only sugar-free gum. Ordinary chewing gum contains sugar and therefore may damage your teeth.


See your dental professional twice a year for dental cleanings to answer Does my Diet affect my Oral Health? Our body is a complex machine. The foods we choose and how often we eat them can affect our general health and the health of our teeth and gums, too. If we consume too many sugar-filled sodas, sweetened fruit drinks or non-nutritious snacks, we could be at risk for tooth decay and gum disease., These play an important role in maintaining your oral health by helping to identify dental erosion in its early stages. If there is a need, they can counsel you on making healthy dietary choices to stop dental erosion if your eating habits are contributing. Outside the dental chair, keep your mouth moist by drinking plenty of water so saliva can cleanse your mouth of these acids regularly. Use a fluoride toothpaste. Swishing with a fluoride mouthwash will also help to lessen the severity of dental erosion. Be sure to floss once a day in your daily oral health routine.

Camden Coffee Icon

Sonria Dental

Photo by Sonria Dental Clinic Ltd. Coffee cup overlooking Camden Lock on a rainy day.

With approximately 165 million cups and 55 million cups of tea and coffee, respectively, being drank in the UK on a daily basis, we can safely say these are two of the most popular drinks we consume as a nation. However, an enjoyable a cup of coffee or tea can cause very noticeable stains on your teeth, and can have a negative effect on your oral health.

How does staining occur?

Tea and coffee stains occur when a yellowish/brownish bitter-tasting organic substance, called Tannins, builds up on the enamel of your teeth. Tannins can not only be found in these two drinks, but in any food or beverage derived from plants where the substance is present (i.e. wine).

Tannins molecules have microscopic ridges and pits that can hold food and drink particles, which can leave a yellow tint that is difficult to remove. These molecules can not only get stuck in the microscopic gaps in the enamel of your teeth, but can also stick itself to existing bacteria on the surface of your them. The longer the particles stay in the gaps, they begin to affect other layers of the tooth. Therefore, the more you drink coffee and tea and don’t do anything to remove it, the deeper the stains go. These types of stains can develop to become intrinsic stains, which are a lot harder to clean and remove.

What else do tea and coffee do to our teeth that is harmful?

Coffee and tea contain a central nervous system stimulant, which raises the activity of your muscles. This can lead to Bruxism, which is the grinding of your teeth and clenching of your jaw, which in itself can lead to other problems, such as wearing down, chipping and breaking of teeth, sleep apnea, adrenal fatigue, headaches, etc.

Coffee and tea (as well as every other beverages that you can think of that are not water!) can be potentially harmful to your teeth if you do not maintain good oral habits. This is because drinks that are not H2O cause the natural bacteria in your mouth to create acids that attack your teeth. If these acids are not cleaned away promptly and effectively, they can wear away the enamel that protects your them. Ultimately, your teeth can be left vulnerable to tooth decay. Therefore, it is essential to (1) not sip beverages all day long, and (2) maintain outstanding oral habits to prevent the build up of acids in your mouth. However, if you feel like you need to drink your daily dose of whatever beverage, it is best to drink it over a period of a few minutes rather than over a few hours. You are doing much less damage to your teeth if you gulp down that beverage!

Updates of the effect of coffee on teeth:

Recent studies, from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, have shown that the only real way to have coffee by devotees, is black, strong, and unsweetened. Drinking coffee in this manner could be key to maintaining your teeth clean, albeit still running the risk of staining and acidity on tooth enamel.

Coffee that is high in caffeine has been found to destroy bacteria that causes dental plaque. Coffee beans contain an organic compound called polyphenols, that destroying bacteria on teeth by bursting it open in a process known as lyse. Although the chemical is naturally present in all coffee beans, its higher concentrations can be found with more caffeine-rich varieties, such as Robusta (also known as Coffee canephora).

Even though these new findings may sound like great news, there are a few warning. First, coffee can still stain teeth even if it may slightly help in fighting plaque. Second, the polyphenol effect only occurs when you drink your coffee black. If you use sugar, cream, or sweeteners, those counteract the work that the polyphenol does.

Similar research has been carried out on wine polyphenols and oral health. More information on this can be found in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

Top tips to avoiding damaging your teeth when drinking coffee or tea:

You can protect your teeth from permanent discolouration without giving up your drinking habits. Here are some tips to save you:

  • Adding bovine milk to your tea or coffee (a study published in the International Journal of Dental Hygiene found that a protein called casein can latch onto tannins and prevent staining);
  • Drinking through a straw to avoid contact with your teeth (the smaller the straw, the better);
  • Rinsing and/or drinking water during/after tea or coffee consumption;
  • You can also steep your tea for a little less time to lighten it up a bit;
  • As mentioned before, drink your cuppa over a period of a few minutes rather than over a few hours;
  • Brush your teeth after you have had your morning tea or coffee;
  • If you can’t brush your teeth, try snacking on raw fruits and vegetables, as these foods contain natural fibres that help break down harmful bacteria;
  • Floss daily to remove the extra plaque that your toothbrush can’t reach;
  • Chew sugar-free gum (the more you chew, the more saliva you produce, and this saliva will wash away acids and plaque from your teeth); and
  • Visit your dentist for regular hygiene appointments.

No one is saying you have to stop enjoying your cup of coffee or tea altogether. Although tea and coffee can have a negative effect on your oral health, just be sure to maintain good oral habits, and visiting your dentist for regular dental hygiene, air polishing, and dental whitening appointments. That way, you can enjoy your favourite beverages, without leaving your pearly whites vulnerable to decay, stains, chips and breaks, and the wearing away of your teeth’s enamel!

How to stop bleeding gums

It could be more severe than you think.

How to stop bleeding gums ? According to the European Society of Periodontics, gum problems affect 8 out of 10 European citizens, yet they are often unrecognised. Loose, wobbly teeth and even tooth loss can begin in your gums – and also affect other parts of your body.

How to stop bleeding gums

Periodontal diseases damage the tissues around your teeth; the tissues that actually support the teeth. The main cause is bacteria. When bacteria accumulate on teeth, gums, crowns and fillings, this allows a film or layer of dental plaque to form. Plaque is that soft, sticky, initially colourless film which attaches to your teeth – often without you knowing.

Gingivitis is the most common gum disease and is basically inflammation of the gums surrounding the teeth. It appears as swelling or redness and can sometimes cause irritation, but, Gingivitis can also be painless so you might not even know you have it! Research indicates that almost 100% of the population has Gingivitis at some point in their lives.

Genetics, some health problems and factors such as tartar – plaque that has hardened and is difficult to remove – can increase the risk of Gingivitis and result in symptoms such as bad breath, bleeding when you brush or floss your teeth, receding gums, loose, unstable teeth or even tooth loss.


Some research indicates that various hormonal factors might make women more susceptible to Gingivitis. Puberty, pregnancy, the use of contraceptives, the menopause and other female bodily changes can all have an exaggerated effect on the bacteria which can cause Gingivitis, so it is particularly important for women to be extra vigilant.

However, left untreated, Gingivitis can evolve into a more serious and destructive disease named Periodontitis – which can unfortunately cause permanent damage to your teeth. It is therefore very important to know how to diagnose, treat and prevent Gingivitis and how to stop bleeding gums .

Gingivitis – how to diagnose it, treat it and prevent it, How to stop bleeding gums.

First of all – be aware of the signs. Look out for any redness, swelling, tenderness or bleeding when you brush or floss your teeth.

If you smoke, there may be fewer visible signs and less bleeding, but as the disease can actually be more aggressive for smokers, please be extra attentive and visit your dentist if you are unsure. Smoking triples the risk of suffering periodontal diseases.

Treatment for Gingivitis means the thorough removal of plaque and bacteria, which your hygienist or dentist can easily do for you. They can also teach you the correct way to keep your teeth scrupulously clean, which, done systematically, can help prevent gingivitis from reappearing.

To prevent Gingivitis, it is important that your personal dental hygiene is thorough. Carefully brush your teeth at least twice daily – though three times is even better. Make sure you reach those difficult areas between the teeth by using dental floss or an interdental tooth brush – and don’t forget your tongue. Using mouthwash can help prevent gingivitis, but it is not a replacement for careful and systematic brushing of your teeth and tongue. Scientific evidence shows that both manual and electric tooth brushes can be good for removing plaque, but your dentist can show you the best and most effective way to use them.

How to stop bleeding gums

Avoiding smoking and trying to control your stress levels will also help you fight against Gingivitis and how to stop bleeding gums . Regular six-monthly check-ups with your dentist or hygienist will ensure that any changes will be easily detected, so don’t forget to book that appointment.

Take action now to achieve optimum oral health – it’s easy now that you know how! Also see here Gingovoplasty.

Giovanny Restrepo
Special interest in Periodontics

Teeth whitening last longer

After spending time and money how can you make teeth whitening last longer. Whether you opted for an in-office teeth-whitening treatment or spent weeks whitening your teeth at home, the last thing you want to see in the mirror is discolouration. You may now begin to wonder, “how can I keep my teeth white?”

1. To make teeth whitening last longer it helps to avoid certain foods. Avoid the consumption of excessive or exposure to products that stain your teeth, such as coffee, tea, and red wine, curry, and Bolognese sauce. If you do choose to consume beverages that stain, consider using a straw so that the liquid bypasses your front teeth.

2. Brush or rinse immediately after consuming stain-causing beverages or foods.

3. Follow good oral hygiene practices. Brush your teeth at least twice daily; floss at least once a day to remove plaque, and rinse with an antiseptic mouthwash at least once every day to kill bacteria that cause plaque.

4. Use a whitening toothpaste (once or twice a week only) to remove surface stains. Use a regular toothpaste the rest of the time. Over-the-counter toothpaste, gels, and rinses help remove some surface stains. Many of these products contain mild abrasives, chemicals, or polishing agents. Unlike bleaches, they don’t change the natural colour of teeth.

5. Consider touch-up treatments. Depending on the whitening method used, you may need a touch-up every six months or year. If you smoke or drink lots of stain-causing beverages, you may need a touch up more often. To keep your teeth white in the long-term, ask your dentist about making a custom tray for you so you can whiten at home. When your teeth start to yellow again from eating and drinking, you can use your fitted mouth tray and whitening gel to return your teeth to the colour you want. Be sure to talk to your dentist before whitening and only use bleaching products that have the Dental Association Seal of Acceptance or were given to you by your dentist.


Tooth-Whitening Kits

Home tooth-whitening kits contain carbamide peroxide, bleach that can remove both deep and surface stains and changes your natural tooth colour. With some packages, you apply a peroxide-based gel (with a small brush) to the surface of your teeth. In other kits, the gel is in a tray that moulds to the teeth. The tray must be worn daily (for 1 or 2 hours) for a week or more.How to make teeth whitening last longer


Home Whitening Strips

Home whitening strips will help get rid of tooth stains. These pieces are very thin, virtually invisible, and are coated with a peroxide-based whitening gel. You wear them a few minutes daily for a week or more. Results are visible in just a few days and last at least a year. The results with strips are not as dramatic as with whitening kits, but the strips are easy to use and pretty much foolproof
make teeth whitening last longer

Remedies for Whiter Teeth

Some people still prefer the age-old home remedy of baking soda and a toothbrush to whiten teeth at home gently.

Do not be tempted to use this method. Often, baking soda will eventually damage the enamel of your teeth, and they will stain quicker and easier.

Some foods such as celery, apples, pineapple, pears, and carrots trigger lots of salivae, which helps wash away food debris on your teeth. Chewing sugar-free gum is a tooth-cleaning action and also triggers saliva. An additional bonus from all that saliva is that it neutralises the acid that causes tooth decay. With teeth, more saliva is better all around.

Tooth Whitening and Dental Work

Approach tooth whitening with caution if you have lots of dental veneers, bonding, fillings, crowns, and bridges. Bleach will not lighten them, meaning they will stand out among your newly whitened natural teeth. To match your whiter teeth, you may need to carry out new dental work, including veneers, crowns or composites.

To Keep Teeth White, Don’t Light Up

Not only is it bad for your health, but smoking is also one of the worst offenders when it comes to staining teeth. Tobacco does not make teeth whitening last longer. Tobacco causes brown stains that penetrate the grooves and pits of tooth enamel. Tobacco stains can be hard to remove by brushing alone. The longer you smoke, the more entrenched the stains become. Smoking also causes bad breath and gingivitis (gum disease) and increases the risk of most types of cancer.


Preventing Teeth Stains

As we age, the outer layer of tooth enamel wears away. The underlying layer, called dentin, is yellower. That’s why it’s important to try to avoid staining teeth in the first place, especially after whitening. If you take care of foods and drinks that discolour teeth, the results of whitening may last up to one year.

Foods that Cause Teeth Stains

There’s another reason to watch what you eat especially to make teeth whitening last longer. Some common foods can discolour teeth. Here’s an easy way to tell if food might be at fault: Anything that can stain a white cotton T-shirt can stain teeth. Coffee stains teeth, for example. Other top offenders are beverages such as tea, dark sodas, and fruit juices. They may be packed with disease-fighting antioxidants, but a glass of red wine, cranberry juice, or grape juice also stains teeth easily. However, that doesn’t mean you should give them up, but, instead, remember to rinse your mouth after you drink them. These aren’t the only teeth-staining foods to be aware; the deep colour of some fruits and veggies gives them their nutritional punch. Blueberries, blackberries, and beets leave their tone on teeth as well. Eat up for your health, and prevent tooth stains by:
• Brushing teeth immediately after eating.
• Rinsing your mouth with water.Foods that Cause Teeth Stains


Sports Drinks on Teeth

While all sweetened drinks are bad for teeth, some energy and sports drinks may be worse, according to one study in General Dentistry. To make teeth whitening last longer its best to avoid these. Researchers found that these beverages — as well as bottled lemonade — may erode tooth enamel after long-term use. The result is thin, translucent, discoloured teeth. To prevent tooth erosion:
• Don’t sit and sip these drinks for a long time.
• Rinse your mouth with water when you finish drinking.

Medications That Can Stain Teeth

The antibiotic tetracycline causes greyness in children whose teeth are still developing.

Antibacterial mouthwashes that contain chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium chloride can also stain teeth.

Some antihistamines, antipsychotic drugs, and blood pressure medications cause tooth stains like can iron and excess fluoride.

If bleaching doesn’t help, ask your dentist about dental bonding, in which tooth-colored material is applied to teeth.

Don’t Forget Daily Maintenance

One simple strategy can help maintain white teeth: brushing.

Brush at least twice daily. Even better, brush after every meal and snack. Brushing helps prevent stains and yellow teeth, especially at the gum line. Both electric and sonic toothbrushes may be superior to traditional toothbrushes in removing plaque and surface stains on teeth. Also, don’t forget to floss and use an antiseptic mouthwash.make teeth whitening last longer

Read more on our teeth whitening service .

tooth decay

Dental caries is the scientific term for tooth decay. When you eat food and drinks, high in carbohydrates, the bacteria in the plaque turns what has been consumed by the energy they need, producing acid at the same time. If the plaque is allowed to build up, the acid can begin to dissolve the tooth’s enamel and the layer under it. This segment, the dentin, can then develop holes known as cavities. This is tooth decay.

The plaque forms most easily in certain places. These include:
• Cracks, pits or grooves in the back teeth
• Between teeth
• Around dental fillings or bridgework
• Near the gum line

Initially, decay is minimal to see, but it gets larger over time. Eventually, if corrosion is not treated, the bacteria will enter the pulp (the soft centre of the tooth that contains nerves and blood vessels). At this stage, your nerves will be exposed to bacteria, usually making your tooth painful. These bacteria can cause dental abscesses in the pulp, and the infection could spread to the bone.

Tooth roots exposed by receding gums also can develop decay. The root’s outer layer, cementum, is not as thick as enamel. Acids from plaque bacteria can dissolve it rapidly.Types of Dental Decay

Symptoms of Types of Dental Decay

Early caries may not have any signs. Later, when the rot has eaten through the enamel, the teeth may be sensitive to sweet, hot or cold foods or drinks.
Tooth decay may not cause any pain. However, if you have dental caries you might have:
1.A toothache, either continuous pain keeping you awake or occasional sharp pain without an apparent cause
2. You may also feel tooth sensitivity when eating or drinking something hot, cold or sweet.
3. Grey, brown or black spots appearing on the surfaces of the teeth.
4. Bad breath
5. An unpleasant taste in your mouth
Types of Dental Decay

It is essential to visit your dentist regularly so that early Types of Dental Decay can be treated as soon as possible and prevention can begin. Tooth decay is much more comfortable and cheaper to address in its early stages. Dentists can usually identify tooth decay and further problems, with a simple examination or X-ray. The decline can be treated with aesthetic composite fillings, ceramic crowns or veneers. Adults and children should have a check-up at least once a year.


A dentist will look for caries at each office visit. The dentist will look at the teeth and may probe them with a tool called an explorer to search for pits or areas of damage.

Your dentist will take X-rays of your teeth on a set schedule, and also if a problem is suspected. They can show newly forming decay, particularly between teeth. They also show the more advanced degeneration, including whether any has reached the pulp and whether the tooth requires a root canal treatment.

Newer devices also can help to detect tooth decay. They are useful in some situations. The one most commonly used in dental offices is a liquid dye or stain. Your dentist brushes the nontoxic dye over your teeth, then rinses it off with water. It rinses away cleanly from healthy areas but sticks to the decayed areas.

Some dentists also use high-tech devices such as lasers to detect cavities. In some situations, these devices can detect very early tooth decay, which can then be reversed.

Expected Duration

Caries caught in the very early stages can be reversed. White spots may indicate early caries that has not yet eroded through the enamel. Early caries may be modified if the acid damage is stopped and the tooth is given a chance to repair itself naturally.

Caries that has destroyed enamel cannot be reversed. Most caries will continue to get worse and go deeper. With time, the tooth may decay down to the root. How long this takes will vary from person to person. Caries can erode to an extreme level within months or years.

Prevention of dental decay

Although Types of Dental Decay is a common problem, it is often entirely preventable. The best way to avoid it is to keep your teeth and gums as healthy and clean as possible. Therefore, you should:

1. Clean your teeth properly with fluoride toothpaste twice a day, using floss and an interdental brush at least once a day. This will help to reduce the number of bacteria in your mouth.

2. Visit your dentist regularly. They will decide how often they need to see you based on the condition of your mouth, teeth and gums.

3. You can reduce the amount of tooth-damaging acid in your mouth by eating sugary or starchy foods less often during the day. Your mouth will remain acidic for several hours after you eat. Therefore, you are more likely to prevent caries if you avoid between-meal snacks or within an hour of going to bed – some medications can also contain sugar, so it’s best to look for sugar-free alternatives where possible

4. Avoid smoking or drinking alcohol excessively – tobacco can interfere with saliva production, which helps to keep your teeth clean; alcohol can contribute to the erosion of tooth enamel

5. Another way to reduce your risk of cavities is through the use of fluoride, which strengthens teeth. A dentist can evaluate your risk of caries and then suggest appropriate fluoride treatments. Fluoride in water strengthens teeth from within, as they develop, and also on the outside. Dentists also can paint fluoride varnish on children’s primary teeth to protect them from decay.

6. You also can use antibacterial mouth rinses to reduce the levels of bacteria that cause cavities. Other rinses neutralise the acid in your mouth to make it less friendly to the growth of these bacteria.

7. Sugar-free chewing gum helps to decrease bacterial growth.

8. In adults and children, molars can be protected with sealants. Dentists also can use sealants on molars that have early signs of tooth decay, as long as it has not broken through the enamel.

9. See your dentist or GP if you have a persistently dry mouth –this may be caused by certain medicines, treatment or medical conditions

Protecting your child’s teeth

Establishing good eating habits, by limiting sugary snacks and drinks, can help your child avoid tooth decay. Regular visits to the dentist at an early age should also be encouraged.

It’s important to teach your child how to clean their teeth regularly and adequately. Your dentist can show you how to do this. Children should still brush their teeth twice a day, especially before bedtime.

Treatment of tooth decay depends on how advanced it is.

For early-stage tooth decay – your dentist will talk to you about the amount of sugar in your diet and the times you eat. They may apply a fluoride gel, varnish or paste to the area. Fluoride helps to protect teeth by strengthening the enamel, making teeth more resistant to the acids from the plaque that can cause tooth decay.

If the Types of Dental Decay is not too extensive, then the dentist will clean it and restore the tooth. This involves removing the dental decay, offering a local anaesthetic to numb the tooth and filling the hole.

If a cavity is large, the remaining tooth may not be able to support enough filling material to repair it. In this case, the dentist will remove the decay and cover the tooth with a ceramic inlay, onlay or a crown.

When the tooth is so severely damaged that it cannot be restored, it may need to be removed. Your dentist may be able to replace the tooth with a partial denture, bridge or dental implant.

Sometimes bacteria may infect the pulp inside the tooth even if the part of the tooth you can see remains relatively intact. In this case, the tooth will need root canal treatment. A general dentist or an endodontist will remove the pulp, disinfect the canals of the tooth and replace it with an inert material. In most cases, the tooth will need a crown.Tooth decay treatment


If caries are not treated, it likely will cause the tooth to decay significantly. Eventually, uncontrolled decay may destroy the tooth.

Having caries increases your risk of it spreading for several reasons:
• The more decay you have, the more bacteria exist in your mouth.
• The same oral care and dietary habits that led to the decay of your teeth will cause more caries.
• Bacteria tend to stick to fillings and other restorations more than to smooth teeth, so those areas will be more likely to have new caries.
• Cracks or gaps in the fillings may allow bacteria and food to enter the tooth, leading to decay from beneath.

When To Call a Professional

The early stages of decay are usually painless. Only regular dental examinations and X-rays (or other caries-detecting devices) can show early trouble. If your teeth become sensitive to chewing or too hot, cold or sweet foods or drinks, contact your dentist.